Friday, January 24, 2020
Cloning, as of recent years, has become a very controversial issue. Society is firmly divided on the uses and ethics of cloning. Cloning can rang from producing copies of plants and animals to clones of humans and human organs. But cloning can have several positive effects for the well being of society. Cloning plants can have positive effects fo humans. Scientist can clone plants and alter them to produce healthier food. For example, oranges which contain an abundance of Vitamin C, can be altered to include Vitamin D and Calcium, which is found amply in milk. Cloning can also improve the status of hunger-stricken Third World nations. Fruits and vegetables can be cloned to produce large amounts of food without have to worry about growing season, climate, or any other environmental factor. They can also be alterd to be able to be grown in different environments or to produce more food and for a longer period of time. Cloning animals can have several ramifications. Foremost, is the be nfit of humans. This can be done in two ways. First, cloning animals can help us understand the way our cellss divide, multiply and operate. We can also learn how to fix ceratin disorders, thus leading to tests and research in similar human disorders. For example, sheep have a disease of the brain, called Scrapie, that causes tremors, loss of motion, and eventually death. This disease is very similar to the human disease called ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. Scientists can try to stimulate new brain cells to divide and regrow damaged areas in the sheep brain first and then try similar procedures for humans. Animal cloning can also lead to better production of food. Ranchers can take one cow, the best out of the whole stock, and clone it. This would improve his sales and our health because we are given a healthier product. Endangered animals can also benefit from animal cloning. For instance, instead of doing lab monitored pregnancies and artificial inseminations for endangered animals, scientists can clone several embryos for the healthiest animal of that species. Working the way up the evolutionary scale leads eventually to cloning human organs and ultimately humans. This is the most controversial area of cloning, but despite the controversy, cloning of human organs and also humans can have some positive effects. To illustrate, kidney tissue can be used to grow a healthy kidney for patients with frequent kidney failures. Cloning :: essays research papers fc Cloning, as of recent years, has become a very controversial issue. Society is firmly divided on the uses and ethics of cloning. Cloning can rang from producing copies of plants and animals to clones of humans and human organs. But cloning can have several positive effects for the well being of society. Cloning plants can have positive effects fo humans. Scientist can clone plants and alter them to produce healthier food. For example, oranges which contain an abundance of Vitamin C, can be altered to include Vitamin D and Calcium, which is found amply in milk. Cloning can also improve the status of hunger-stricken Third World nations. Fruits and vegetables can be cloned to produce large amounts of food without have to worry about growing season, climate, or any other environmental factor. They can also be alterd to be able to be grown in different environments or to produce more food and for a longer period of time. Cloning animals can have several ramifications. Foremost, is the be nfit of humans. This can be done in two ways. First, cloning animals can help us understand the way our cellss divide, multiply and operate. We can also learn how to fix ceratin disorders, thus leading to tests and research in similar human disorders. For example, sheep have a disease of the brain, called Scrapie, that causes tremors, loss of motion, and eventually death. This disease is very similar to the human disease called ParkinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. Scientists can try to stimulate new brain cells to divide and regrow damaged areas in the sheep brain first and then try similar procedures for humans. Animal cloning can also lead to better production of food. Ranchers can take one cow, the best out of the whole stock, and clone it. This would improve his sales and our health because we are given a healthier product. Endangered animals can also benefit from animal cloning. For instance, instead of doing lab monitored pregnancies and artificial inseminations for endangered animals, scientists can clone several embryos for the healthiest animal of that species. Working the way up the evolutionary scale leads eventually to cloning human organs and ultimately humans. This is the most controversial area of cloning, but despite the controversy, cloning of human organs and also humans can have some positive effects. To illustrate, kidney tissue can be used to grow a healthy kidney for patients with frequent kidney failures.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Tone is the attitude the author shows towards the story. And of Clay Are We Made written by Isabel Allende is a story where the author focuses on tone through setting, characterization, conflict, theme, special techniques, and diction. Where the price of human life is nothing, and the leaders are more concerned with other problems. The story takes place in Columbia, South America. For the author talks about the natural disaster taking place, and killing many leading it to create a sad tone. Ã¢â¬Å"In that vast cemetery where the odor of death was already attracting vultures from far away, and where the weeping of orphans and wails of the injured filled the air. Ã¢â¬ (Page 586) Hence making it obvious that the author is sad. The characters in this story are the Narrator, Rolf Carle, and Azucena. Ã¢â¬Å"The girl could not move, she could barely move, but she did not seem desperate, as if an ancestral resignation allowed her to accept her fate. Ã¢â¬ (Page 589) Azucena is stuck in the mud for she is pulled downwards by the corpses of her brothers and sisters, creating a sympathetic tone. Isabel clearly creates an admiring tone, when the narrator admires Rolf Carle for staying with Azucena and tries to help her. Ã¢â¬Å"Azucena and Rolf were by my side; I knew everything my love did to wrest the girl from her prison and help her endure her suffering. Ã¢â¬ (Page592) Therefore, the author creates an admiring and sympathetic tone through characterization. There is a conflict between Rolf and himself, when he understands that he can no longer run away from his past. Ã¢â¬Å"It was impossible for Rolf to flee from himself any longer, and the visceral terror he had lived as a boy suddenly invaded him. Ã¢â¬ (Page 593) Furthermore the internal conflict that takes place in the story builds up a thoughtful tone. The Theme in this short story is about the objectivity of reporting which creates a sympathetic tone. Emphasizing on the fact that even the reporter that is considered objective has feelings, and might be affected by the events and tragedies he or she sees. Ã¢â¬Å"Camera had a strange effect on him, I came to realize that this fictive distance seemed to protect him from his own emotionsÃ¢â¬ ¦your cameras lie forgotten in a closetÃ¢â¬ (page 588) In this excerpt the narrator is describing Rolf Carle, and states that when he was on air he was a different person. The camera had a strange effect on him, but later on after AzucenaÃ¢â¬â¢s death he seemed to change and could no longer hide his emotions. The author uses special techniques in this story to build up tone. Isabelle foreshadows AzucenaÃ¢â¬â¢s death and creates a sad tone. Ã¢â¬Å"A doctor stated that she had fever but added there was little he could do: antibiotics were being reserved for cases of gangrene. Ã¢â¬ (Page 592) IsabelleÃ¢â¬â¢s choice of words referred to as diction; is direct and filled with the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s feelings. The author Isabelle Allende creates a sympathetic, admiring, sad tone through setting, characterization, conflict, theme, foreshadowing and diction. A natural disaster kills thousands of people; an objective reporter faces himself after meeting a young girl.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Literary criticism, based off literary theory, is an informed, written analysis of a work of literature. Literary Theory means to understand the ways one can connect to the text, such as how archetypal criticism focuses on how symbols affect the story. To Kill a Mockingbird, a fictional novel written by Harper Lee, contains different literary theories. This practice makes the reader feel as though they can decide what certain symbols in the book mean. In the novel, Lee expresses archetypal criticism through the hero, the child, and the scapegoat. The hero archetype is shown through many characters. Link Deas was a hero to Mrs. Robinson when he exclaimed to Mr. Ewell, Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â¢First thing you can do, Ewell, is get your stinkin carcass off myÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Scout is one of them, shown when she, Ã¢â¬Å"I broke away from Jem and ran as fast as I could to Atticus.Ã¢â¬ (Lee 172). Scout running to Atticus proved to be very ignorant of her. It was a tight situation a nd ScoutÃ¢â¬â¢s blink decision reflects the child archetype. The saying, Ã¢â¬Å"ignorance is blissÃ¢â¬ , also shows her extreme innocence. Moreover, Jem was also a child, Ã¢â¬Å"It was JemÃ¢â¬â¢s turn to cry. His face was streaked with angry tearsÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (Lee XX). JemÃ¢â¬â¢s tears show his innocence, for it is very childlike to cry. He also shows ignorance, he should have been happy that some people in Maycomb were changing. Instead, he bawled his eyes out when things donÃ¢â¬â¢t go the way they should. Continually, Scout showed extreme innocence when, Ã¢â¬Å"When he was nearly thirteen, my brother, Jem got his arm badly broken at the elbow.Ã¢â¬ (Lee XX). Scout thought that Jem was going to die when Jem had his arm broken. She had never seen someone unconscious before, and the unknown terrified her as much as death. This reflects her innocence, the mindset that thereÃ¢â¬â¢s something in the dark. Furthermore, the child archetype is shown through these characters. Lee also uses her characters as scapegoats in Maycomb. Boo was a scapegoat when Scout said, Ã¢â¬Å"People said he went out when the moon was down and peeped in through windowsÃ¢â¬ ¦ any small crime committed in Maycomb was him.Ã¢â¬ (Lee XX). Whenever something happened in Maycomb, the first name to come to mind was Boo. They used him as an excuse, and BooShow MoreRelatedTo Kill A Mockingbird Literary Analysis Essay1026 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Harper LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s To Kill a Mockingbird demonstrates organic unity through the use of literary tools to create, maintain, and amplify the central theme. Lee constructs and develops the theme of social inequality by employing dialogue, irony, and an extended metaphor. Through dialogue, the townspeople show contempt for blacks, viewing them and anyone who treats them as equals as inferior. This is evident in the analysis of the conversations of Bob Ewell, Mrs. Dubose, and Francis Hancock where they referRead MoreTo Kill A Mockingbird Literary Analysis Essay1143 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesAlmost 30 years later, To Kill a Mockingbird was published with hidden traces of fear getting the best of characters, most commonly without their knowledge. Based on the 1930s, Lee clearly led this book with RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s words in mind. Without the concept and representation of fear through the citizens of Maycomb, specifically Atticus Finch, Bob and Mayella Ewell, and Boo Radley, the worry, poor morals, and yearn for pity would not be present in Harper LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s, To Kill a Mockingbird. Atticus Finch, theRead MoreTo Kill a Mockingbird Literary Analysis on Boo Radleys Relations with the Children822 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBoo - Who? You know that old man in every life based movie that no one seems to understand or talk to? Well, in To Kill a Mockingbird, by Harper Lee, not only is the Ã¢â¬Å"old manÃ¢â¬ of the story misunderstood, but labeled a killer. This sets up an odd foundation for the relationship between the children and Boo at the start of the book. This relationship could be described at best as terrified. Scout mentions the Radley place in chapter 1 when she says; Ã¢â¬Å"inside the house lived a malevolent phantomÃ¢â¬ . ButRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Of Kill A Mockingbird 1271 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJourney Tasopulos Brannen ELA-8 19 April, 2015 Novel Analysis: To Kill A Mockingbird Selection: I selected this book because its the best book I have ever read. I read To Kill A Mockingbird last year and my class wrote an essay about this book, since I already know so much about this book I thought it would be a nice and quick read. I thought it would be a great enjoyment to refresh my memory of this epic book. I watched the movie soon after I read the whole book and it was very fun to pick outRead MoreAnimal Farm Paradox Analysis1013 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPublished Sample Analysis: In this part in Animal Farm, the pigs wish to enact rules that will benefit them at the expense of the other animals on the farm. In one of their rules, a paradox is created whose function is to expose the truth that despite governments claiming to treat everyone equally, they tend to favor certain groups over others. The paradox is created through the statement that some are more equal than others, which is a contradicting statement because if some are more equal thanRead MoreKill A Mocking Bird By Harper Lee Essay1581 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesTo Kill a Mocking Bird is a written narrative by Harper Lee. The story is a linked sequence of conflict as seen through the eyes of a little girl named Scout. It looks back at a time when social injustice of prejudice was prevalent. The story if full of interesting characters, some good and some bad, but each very important to the plot of the story. It is very important to understand each of characterÃ¢â¬â¢s views and the plot of the story as it plays an important role in the overall theme of the storyRead MoreEssay To Kill a Mockingbird: An Analysis of Discrimination893 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTo Kill a Mockingbird: An Analysis of Discrimination The most important theme of the 1960 Pulitzer Prize winning novel To Kill a Mockingbird is author Harper LeeÃ¢â¬â¢s tenacious exploration of the moral nature of people. Lee tenaciously explores the moral nature of human beings, especially the struggle in every human soul between discrimination and tolerance. The novel is very effective in not only revealing prejudice, but in examining the nature of prejudice, how it works, and its consequencesRead MoreTo Kill a Mockingbird977 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLiterary Analysis for To Kill a Mockingbird Ã¢â¬Å"ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s something in our world that makes men lose their heads- they couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be fair if they tried. In our courts, when itÃ¢â¬â¢s a white manÃ¢â¬â¢s word against a black manÃ¢â¬â¢s word, the white always wins. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re ugly, but these are the facts of life.Ã¢â¬ ************ Along with the main theme of the story, racism, there are multiple other themes that are represented in the story. These include: the coexistence of good and evil, and importance of mortal educationRead MoreThe Setting Of Kill A Mockingbird By Harper Lee1354 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesLiterary Analysis Name: Amy Lyons Title: To Kill a Mockingbird Author: Harper Lee Setting: The setting of To Kill a Mockingbird is a small town in south Alabama called Maycomb County in the early 1930s. Point of View: Harper Lee s first, only novel is written in first person due to the fact we see the whole story through Scout s perspective. Theme: One of the crucial themes that Lee based the novel on was racism, which was an extremely controversial topic at the time the book was publishedRead MoreHow Harper Lees life and childhood influenced her writing of To Kill A Mockingbird2417 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesHARPER LEES VIEW OF THE 1930S AS A CHILD Harper Lee is well known for her great contributions towards modern society through her astounding book, To Kill a Mockingbird. The novel is read world-wide, in high schools and colleges because of its in-depth look at the social classes in the south during the 1930s. The book was influenced by society, in particular the social order of the south during her childhood. Lee grew up during this time of controversy which is why she writes so passionately about
Monday, December 30, 2019
A high number of united states are diagnosed with HIV each year (156300). In last 10 years the infection of HIV virus has been increased by 12.8%. By the researchers at united stat in 2013 states that, 47,352 people were diagnosed with HIV infection. Therefore in the same year the estimate shows that 26688 wear end up with AIDS. HIV virus is responsible for death of almost 13713 people of united states in 2012. The focus of this research project was mainly on the following five sub questions. First of all definition of HIV virus, how HIV virus spread in society, symptoms of HIV viruses, how HIV lead to AIDS and treatment of HIV disease. Definition of HIV To begin with HIV is stand for humanÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In addition HIV virus itself can cause some damages to the disease. Untreated disease can lead to severe immune suppression and death. The virus uses RNA to transfer generic material through the generations.The RNA is contained in a core. The core is covered by an envelope.There are enzymes (eg Reverse Transcriptase, Integrase, Protease )inside the envelope. The virus uses these enzymes to produce new viruses inside the human body. There are some proteins inside the virus called Ã¢â¬Å"AntigensÃ¢â¬ . Inside the human body the virus attack many cells including brain cells, kidneys, bowels, genitals and CD4 Lymphocytes. CD4 Lymphocytes are important to mediate the immune response within the body. When the CD4 cells are damaged and killed, the immune functions in the body are also weakened. A healthy person has a CD4 count above 800cells/micro liter Mother to child Mother to child transmission is the other important way that HIV virus can spreads to the society. In the some developed countries the pregnant women who have HIV positive in there body are using medication for 6 weeks after birth those medicine reduces the risk of infection. However there are some possibilities that HIV virus can infected to the child before or during the birth because HIV virus can infected to babies bodies with breast milk because the breast milk is contains HIV virus. Sex In the most people who infected by HIV
Sunday, December 22, 2019
Most of us fail to realize that caffeine is present in almost every drink that we consume. Most people enjoy the positive effects that caffeine does to our bodies, but have you ever thought of the negative? Caffeine is a stimulant to the central nervous system and the regular use of it can cause a mild physical dependence. With a dependence being shown I strongly do believe that caffeine is just as addictive as any other drug. Over 90 percent of the United States consumes caffeinated beverages on a daily basis and almost over 50 percent of those people drink more than the recommended amount. With the majority of people having coffees in the mornings we fail to recognize the negative impact it can have on our body. By 2011 there haveÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Since caffeine is a stimulant and a diuretic it will increase your blood pressure and heart rate by a lot, which is a big no when it comes to pregnancy. You may be able to handle the intake of caffeine that you drink normall y per day but can your baby? Numerous studies, tested on animals, have shown birth defects, premature labor, preterm delivery, reduced fertility and an increased risk of low birth weight and more reproductive problems. There were two studies conducted in 2008 that either have or havenÃ¢â¬â¢t related the effects of drinking high amounts of caffeine relating to miscarriages. Study one, by the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, found that women who drink 200mg or more of caffeinated beverages daily are two times as likely to have a miscarriage than those who do not have any caffeine. The other study, by Epidemiology, showed that there was no risk of such allegations. Due to the conflicting results from the numerous studies the March of Dimes stated that until more conclusive evidence can be shown that mothers to be should limit their caffeine intakes to no more than 200 mg per day. Have you ever stopped drinking coffee or soda for a few days and felt sick days later? Tha tÃ¢â¬â¢s because you are going through something called a withdrawal. A withdrawal means that you are not taking something that your body is used to having and it then makes you sick. People who suffer from a withdrawal usually are dependent on drugs, but theShow MoreRelatedNegative Effects Of Caffeine992 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe effect of caffeine on accuracy in a sports related task Introduction The use of caffeine is worldwide, contained in a range of foods, beverages and medicines with it being one of the most frequently consumed ingredients worldwide (Heckman, Weil, Mejia, Gonzalez, 2010). Extensive research has been conducted into caffeine and its effects on our cognitive functioning and development, with many studies concluding that due to its beneficial effects surrounding enhanced performance and awarenessRead MoreCaffeine Synthesis1722 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPaper Many Americans have included caffeine as a part of their daily diet whether they realize it or not. In fact, Ã¢â¬Å"caffeine is the most consumed psychoactive substance in the worldÃ¢â¬ (Ruxton How is this instead (Caffeine is especially common throughoutÃ¢â¬ ¦) 15). It is found very especially commonly throughout every day foods and consumed mostly though through coffee, tea, soda, and chocolate (Spiller 200). Many Americans participate in the use of caffeine; it is estimated that 90% of adultsRead MoreCaffeine Speech Essay774 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSpeech Outline Title: Caffeine Specific purpose: To inform my audience about the effects and health issues of caffeine. Thesis: Caffeine can have many different effects on the body depending on the amount of consumption. Introduction A. Attention Getter Ã¢â¬â How many of you here consider yourself caffeine addicts? How much soda do you drink a day? One bottle? Two cans? More? How about coffee? B. Thesis statement Ã¢â¬â Caffeine can have many different effects on the body depending on the amountRead MoreSpeech on Caffeine Essay889 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesTitle: Caffeine Specific purpose: To inform my audience what exactly caffeine is, where it comes from, the benefits of caffeine and the negative effects of caffeine. Introduction A. Attention material: Do you ever feel like you will never make it through the day without caffeine? Is your first thought in the morning to get yourself a cup of coffee before you can even get your day started? B. Tie to the audience: I am sure that most of you do consume at least one form ofRead MoreEffects Of Caffeine On People s Lives927 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Caffeine is a huge part of North American culture, it is consumed in coffee, teas, chocolate, energy drinks and many other goods. Coffee is the main source of caffeine, and is frequently consumed socially. Because people rely on this substance so heavily, its side effects are often speculated. People who tend to consume large amounts of caffeine notice shakiness, nervousness, irritability, and increased heart rate (Whiteman.) However, the positive effects are much greater, and some include decreasedRead MoreEssay on The Beneficial Effects of Caffeine1441 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesstill groggy and tired. You throw on your clothes and grab a caffeinated beverage of your choice before sprinting out the door. You know you canÃ¢â¬â¢t rely on caffeine to stimulate your brain, or can you? This scenario is very common in the lives of most college students. For most students, caffeine dependency has become more important than sleep. Caffeine seems to be the boost that students need before tests. Ã¢â¬Å"Unfortunately, I have no data associating sales trends to midterms and finals, but I think itsRead MoreEffects Of Caffeine On The Consumption Of Caffeine1511 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCaffeine, a popularly consumed central nervous system stimulant is consumed on a day to day basis around the globe.Ã Caffeine can be ingested into the body by either eating it or drinking it. Caffeine comes in forms of many processed foods such as coffee, chocolate bars, candy, sodas, and energy drinks as well as tea. For example millions of people all around the world consume coffee on a daily basis.Ã Due to the large consumption of caffeine, both the negative and positive side effects of consumingRead MoreConsumption of Caffeine by Minors1621 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesConsumption of caffeine b y minors has increased significantly in the past few years. In the modern community it is a common practice amongst teens to consume coffee as a part of an afterschool get together or as an energy booster in the morning. Many other teens consume highly caffeinated drinks that are known as energy drinks, even a can of coke has a very high amount of caffeine present in it. Consequently is caffeine an energy booster or a detriment to wellbeing. So should children be able toRead MoreEffect of Caffeine Consumption on Academic Performance in College Undergraduates1728 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Effect of Caffeine Consumption on Academic Performance in College Undergraduates Morgan Bolen, Maria Naula-Quintero, and Carlin Wright Michigan State University Abstract In this study we are interested in assessing the relationship between average amount of caffeine consumed per day and academic performance. We hypothesized that an increase in average caffeine consumed per day would result in increased academic success. A short survey was composed based on average amount of caffeineRead MoreCaffeine Addiction Essay800 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesIt is important to learn about caffeine addiction because people donÃ¢â¬â¢t know that they are addicted to it and that caffeine can damage the body and brain. There are a few positive and negative psychological effects of caffeine on the human body. Positive psychological effects are concentration, focus, attention, improves memory, in some studies, and alertness. Negative psychological effects are anxiety, depression, irritable, and addiction. Some physiological effects are nausea, headache, restless
Saturday, December 14, 2019
Education in Ã¢â¬ÅThe RepublicÃ¢â¬Â Ã¢â¬ÅDiscourse on the Arts and SciencesÃ¢â¬Â Free Essays
The role and significance of education with regard to political and social institutions is a subject that has interested political philosophers for millennia. In particular, the views of the ancient Greek philosopher Plato, as evidenced in The Republic, and of the pre-Romantic philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau in his Discourse on the Arts and Sciences, present a striking juxtaposition of the two extremes of the ongoing philosophical and political debate over the function and value of education. In this paper, I will argue that RousseauÃ¢â¬â¢s repudiation of education, while imperfect and offering no remedy to the ills it disparages, is superior inasmuch as it comes closer to the truth of things than does PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s idealized conceptions. We will write a custom essay sample on Education in Ã¢â¬Å"The RepublicÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Discourse on the Arts and SciencesÃ¢â¬ or any similar topic only for you Order Now To do so, I will first examine PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretation of the role of education and its function in shaping the structure of society and government and in producing good citizens. I will then introduce RousseauÃ¢â¬â¢s view of education and the negative effects of the civilized culture which it produces, and using this view, will attempt to illustrate the naivete and over-idealization of PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s notions. Finally, I will attempt to demonstrate that it is RousseauÃ¢â¬â¢s view, rather than PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s, that is ultimately more significant in assessing the actual (vs. idealized) merits (or lack thereof, in RousseauÃ¢â¬â¢s case) by which education should be judged with regard to the nurturance of good citizens. For Plato, the question of the role of education arises near the end of Book II (377e), after a discussion of both the necessary and consequent attributes of SocratesÃ¢â¬â¢ kallipolis or Ã¢â¬Å"Ideal City. Such a city, Socrates argues, will, before long, have need of both a specialization of labor (in order for the greatest level of diversity and luxury of goods to be achieved) and of the establishment of a class of Ã¢â¬Å"GuardiansÃ¢â¬ to protect the city from its envious neighbors and maintain order within its walls (i. e. , to police and govern the city). This, in turn, leads inexorably to the question of what attributes the Ideal City will require of its Guardians, and how best to foster such attributes. The early, childhood education of the Guardians, Socrates argues, is the key. What, then, asks Socrates, should children be taught, and when? This quickly leads to a discussion of censorship. Socrates cites a number of questionable passages from Homer which cannot, he thinks, be allowed in education, since they represent dishonorable behavior and encourage the fear of death. The dramatic form of much of this poetry is also suspect: it puts unworthy words into the mouths of gods heroes. Socrates suggests that what we would call Ã¢â¬Å"direct quotationÃ¢â¬ must be strictly limited to morally-elevating speech. Nothing can be permitted that compromises the education of the young Guardians, as it is they who will one day rule and protect the city, and whom the lesser-constituted citizens of the polis will attempt to emulate, assimilating, via the imitative process of mimesis, to the Myth (or Ã¢â¬Å"noble lieÃ¢â¬ ) of the Ideal City in which justice is achieved when everyone assumes their proper role in society. The process of mimesis, is, of course, yet another form of education, in which those of Iron and Bronze natures are Ã¢â¬Å"instructedÃ¢â¬ and inspired by the superior intelligence and character of the Gold and Silver members of the Guardian class. It is therefore a form of education without which the polis cannot operate. Thus, for Guardian and ordinary citizen alike, the education of the young and the continuing Ã¢â¬Å"instructionÃ¢â¬ of the citizenry are crucial. In addition to these aspects, Plato also conceives of another function of education, and one which is quite significant in its relation to RousseauÃ¢â¬â¢s views. For Plato, education and ethics are interdependent. To be ethical, in turn, requires a twofold movement: movement away from immersion in concrete affairs to thinking and vision of unchanging order and structures (such as justice) and then movement back from dialectic to participation and re-attachment in worldly affairs. It is a temptation to become an abstract scholar. But the vision of the good is the vision of what is good for oneself and the city Ã¢â¬â of the common good. If one does not return to help his fellow human beings, he becomes selfish and in time will be less able to see what is good, what is best. An unselfish devotion to the good requires an unselfish devotion to the realization of this good in human affairs. Just as the purpose of understanding order and limits in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own life is to bring about order and restraint in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own character and desires, the understanding of justice requires application in the public sphere (through education). A man who forgets the polis is like a man who forgets he has a body. Plato thus advocates educating both the body and the city (for one needs both), not turning oneÃ¢â¬â¢s back on them. If education is, for Plato, the means by which man comes to fully realize (through society) his potential as a human being and by which society as a whole is in turn elevated, for Rousseau it is quite the opposite. Education, argues Rousseau, does not elevate the souls of men but rather corrodes them. The noble mimesis which lies at the heart of education in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s kallipolis is for Rousseau merely a slavish imitation of the tired ideas of antiquity. The ill effects of this imitation are manifold. Firstly, argues Rousseau, when we devote ourselves to the learning of old ideas, we stifle our own creativity and originality. Where is there room for original thought, when, in our incessant efforts to impress one another with our erudition, we are constantly spouting the ideas of others? In a world devoid of originality, the mark of greatness, intelligence, and virtue is reduced to nothing more than our ability to please others by reciting the wisdom of the past. This emphasis on originality is in marked contrast with Plato, who finds no value in originality, deeming it antithetical to a polis otherwise unified by shared Myths of the Ideal City and of Metals. Rousseau rejects this Ã¢â¬Å"unityÃ¢â¬ , rightly denouncing it as a form of slavery , in which humanityÃ¢â¬â¢s inherent capacity for spontaneous, original self-expression is replaced with the yoking. of the mind and the will to the ideas of others, who are often long dead. In addition to suppressing the innate human need for originality, education (and the appetite for Ã¢â¬Å"cultureÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"sophisticationÃ¢â¬ that it engenders) causes us to conceal ourselves, to mask our true natures, desires, and emotions. We become artificial and shallow, using our social amenities and our knowledge of literature, etc. , to present a pleasing but deceptive face to the world, a notion quite at odds with the ideas of Plato. We assume, in RousseauÃ¢â¬â¢s words, Ã¢â¬Å"the appearance of all virtues, without being in possession of one of them. Finally, argues Rousseau, rather than strengthening our minds and bodies and (a critical point) moving us towards that which is ethical, as Plato contends, education and civilization effeminate and weaken us physically and (perhaps most significantly) mentally, and cause us, in this weakness, to stoop to every manner of depravity and injustice against one another. Ã¢â¬Å"External ornaments,Ã¢â¬ writes Rousseau, Ã¢â¬Å"are no less foreign to virtue, which is the strength and activity of the mind. The honest man is an athlete, who loves to wrestle stark naked; he scorns all those vile trappings, which prevent the exertion of his strength, and were, for the most part, invented only to conceal some deformity. Ã¢â¬ Virtue, as opposed to PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s conception, is an action, and results not from the imitation inherent in mimesis, but rather in the activity Ã¢â¬â in the exercise Ã¢â¬â of the body, mind and soul. Education, however, demands imitation, demands a modeling upon what has been successful. How, then, do we rightly assess the merits of education with regard to its it molding of the public character Ã¢â¬â in its ability to produce Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ citizens. The answer to this hinges, I submit, on how we choose to define the Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ citizen. Clearly, if obedience (or Ã¢â¬Å"assimilation to a political ideologyÃ¢â¬ , or perhaps Ã¢â¬Å"voluntary servitudeÃ¢â¬ ) is the hallmark of the good citizen, then we must regard PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s disposition towards education as the proper one. However, obedience, despite its obvious centrality to the smooth operation of society (as we would have social chaos were it completely absent), has its useful limits. Over-assimilation to a political idea or Ã¢â¬Å"blueprintÃ¢â¬ is every bit as dangerous Ã¢â¬â indeed, far more so Ã¢â¬â as the utter under-assimilation of anarchy. For those inclined to dispute this, I would urge them to review the history of Nazi Germany as perhaps the definitive example of what sad, awful spectacles of injustice we humans are capable of when we trade in our mental and spiritual autonomy for the convenient apathy and faceless anonymity of the political ideal. Furthermore, if , as Rousseau contends, our civilization is such that, Ã¢â¬Å"Sincere friendship, real esteem, and perfect confidence [in each other] are banished from among men,Ã¢â¬ what is the quality of the society for which education Ã¢â¬â any modern education Ã¢â¬â purports to prepares us? When, Ã¢â¬Å"Jealousy, suspicion, fear coldness, reserve, hate, and fraud lie constantly concealed under Ã¢â¬ ¦ [a] uniform and deceitful veil of politeness,Ã¢â¬ what is left to us to educate citizens for, other than the pleasure we seem to derive in pedantic displays of hoary knowledge? If we remove the civility from Ã¢â¬Å"civilizationÃ¢â¬ , what remains to us that any education will remedy? How to cite Education in Ã¢â¬Å"The RepublicÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Discourse on the Arts and SciencesÃ¢â¬ , Papers
Friday, December 6, 2019
Quantitative And Quantitative Research Methods Essay In order to support or discard a hypothesis, research needs to be collected. When gathering research, a researcher can either use qualitative or quantitative research methods. Both of these research methods follow the scientific method. Qualitative and quantitative research starts with the researcher identifying a topic of interest. Identifying a topic, begins with a problem or question that someone wants to find the answer to. The topic can come from a personal experience driving the importance of the topic to be investigate but it should not limit the topic. After identifying a topic, the researcher for both qualitative and quantitative methods do background research. First, the researcher needs to determine which research method is most appropriate to use. After deciding which direction the researcher is going to take, the researcher needs to understand the topic. In order to become familiar with research on that particular topic that has already been done, the researcher will read previous studies and complete a literature review. This process is very time consuming but allows the researcher to gain an understanding of the subject that they are going to continue to research. After understanding the previous research, the researcher will create a plan of investigation. For both research methods, the researcher will create a research question and construct a hypothesis. The research question is what the researcher is wondering and wants to find the answers to. After the research question is created with measurable variables, a hypothesis can be formed. This hypothesis is a statement about the expected outcomes of the research. Normally, the hypothesis is created based on the literature review and shows what the researche. .y testing the hypothesis and reporting the statistics, the shared results may be confusing for other people to understand which may compromise how the data is handled after the study. Even with the confusion of trying to understand statistics, the results are still reliable. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods are great and can be used depending on a researchers intentions, but I find quantitative research to be more valid. Quantitative research is more valid because the results are reliable due to statistics that support the results. The results are also reliable because there is little room for the researcherÃ¢â¬â¢s objective bias. By testing and proving theories, the statistics can generalize findings and establish cause and effect relationships. With broad findings, researchers can then go and use qualitative methods to support quantitative results.