Sunday, August 23, 2020

Jack London: The Law of LIfe Essay

LALAJack London: The Law of Life Culture is the declaration of our inclination on how we live, communicate, accept, where we gain our insight, and it likewise recognizes individuals from another in dissimilar social orders. The way of life of Native Americans is so history rich and celebrated refined that it can't be handily confused by anybody that is remote of their lifestyle. In â€Å"The Law of Life,† Jack London depicts the way of life of the Native Americans and their proclivity towards life as it rotates around Naturalism and The Survival of the Fittest. We can depict â€Å"The Law of Life† as the hover of life. The hover of life starts when a man is conceived and finishes with their passing. â€Å"Koskoosh thinks about the leaves diverting in pre-winter from green to brown, of little youngsters that develop increasingly more alluring until they discover a man, bring up kids and gradually become appalling by age and work (London, 389).† The pattern of life and passing is consistently unde niable throughout everyday life. Passing is a characteristic cycle as is birth; the differentiation is the manner by which demise happens and influences a living animal. In the â€Å"Law of Life,† by Jack London, the law gets worthy to the clan because of the idea of their endurance in the brutal conditions in the artic locales. For instance, profound and substantial snow may make it harder for trackers to bring back nourishment for the clan, or creatures may go into hibernation to keep their young safe when they are powerless. At whatever point necessities are scant, the clan relocates starting with one region then onto the next for food, cover, medication, reasonable climate conditions, move to living spaces that are progressively neighborly, and the old and incapacity individuals are disregarded so they won't be an impediment on the relocation and the endurance of the clan. The accessibility of food and water can change consistently. At the point when I previously read Jack London’s short story â€Å"The Law of Life† for my allocated writing perusing for English class, I was profoundly dazzled by Jack London’s composing style. Jack London’s feeling of perception made his accounts profoundly sensible as though they were going on directly before us as though we were in the characters shoes; consequently, the whole story gave us a mouth loaded with something worth mulling over of what might create straightaway. Jack London’s short story was based around how Naturalism infl uences everybody in their lives. Naturalism has a radiant impact on the clans that are looked to whatever circumstances in life that their heredity, social conditions, and condition set them up to experience. â€Å"Naturalism in writing is disclosed as an endeavor to be consistent with nature by not composing unreasonable anecdotes about what life resembles (Weegy).† Naturalistic scholars attempt to show that man’s presence, is controlled by things over which he has no power over and about which he can practice little by on the off chance that he has any decision. Man can just never really keep nature from taking a specific course; nonetheless, man has the capacity, to make insurance from severe climate, by method of: safe house, attire, and supplies. Man is equivalent with all life and nature. We as a whole eat, rest, live, and in the long incredible. A considerable lot of Jack London’s stories talk about the consistent battle of enduring and remaining alive. As talked about in class, nature doesn’t care what your identity is or where you originate from; it is something that is persistent and non-halting. Man and nature are both together in the battle to vie f orever. The point is endurance. Darwin’s Theory of the large fish that gobbles up the little fish, clarifies The Survival of the Fittest. Man and condition are both stood up to between limitless, silly Mother Nature and silly people. The ice district climate is unforgiving and unending. In the terrible, chilly climate, the man demonstration like the wild creature; notwithstanding, the wild creatures carry on with a less irksome existence of what the clan individuals need to experience. For instance, the creatures endure outstandingly by their characteristic impulses by maintaining a strategic distance from a risk. Man for the most part is destined to death when they can't bolster the clan any more. After death, man turned out to be a piece of the nature and joined the interminable and everlasting procedure of nature. Tragically, a more established man named Koskoosh is firmly influenced by naturalism. He is gradually becoming more seasoned and is losing his capacity to stay aware of the clan as the days pass by. The seasons are changing and in this manner, the clan needs to move for food and Koskoosh is too weakened to even consider making the excursion and he may keep his family down. He comprehends that the ind ividuals who are powerless, old and can't deal with themselves must proceed onward with their lives and surrender a spot to the more advantageous and more youthful, living people. Koskoosh realizes what is coming up for him since he has handicaps and won’t have the option to profit the clan. He sits aside watching the clan get together creation sure he isn’t a weight to them while they get ready for moving. Out there he tunes in to his granddaughter provide orders to break camp. He just wishes for her to in any event bid farewell to him. â€Å"Life calls her, and the obligations of life, notâ death†. Koskoosh gets that on the off chance that she eases back down to visit with him it will imperil the soundness of the clan, since they should follow the caribou. Koskoosh can likewise hear the calls of little Koo-tee who in his brain is a touchy youngster, and not over strong.† â€Å"He feels just as the kid would kick the bucket soon, again he is inside upholding to himself that passing will come to everybody (London, 389-390).† Despite the law, he still fairly foresees for an exemption to himself since his child is the pioneer o f the clan. â€Å"He hears a delicate stride of a sandal in the day off, at that point feels a hand lay on his head. His child, the present boss, has come to bid farewell. Not all children do this for their dads, and Koskoosh is unobtrusively thankful and glad. The child asks, â€Å"Is it well with you?† The individuals have left, the child clarifies, and they are moving rapidly in light of the fact that they have not eaten well for quite a while. Koskoosh guarantees him that everything is great, that he realizes he is old and close to death, and that he is prepared. He looks at his life to that of â€Å"last year’s leaf, sticking delicately to the stem. The primary breath that blows and I fall. My voice is become like an old woman’s. My eyes no longer show me the method of my feet, and my feet are overwhelming, and I am worn out. It is well (London, 890).† â€Å"The child leaves, and now Koskoosh is really alone. He connects his hand to check his heap of wood and considers how the fire will gradually cease to exist, and he will gradually stick to death (Overview).† Koskoosh is relied upon to stick to death, in all probability, to starve, or to be murdered and eaten by creature predators. It was a proceeding with custom that he was unable to forestall. â€Å"It was easy,† Koskoosh figures, all men must pass on (Overview).† It is the law of life. To surrender the powerless was justifiable as well as it was useful to the presence of the entire clan. While he didn't grumble about his destiny, he got thoughtful to other living creatures that were relinquished when the gathering concurred that they were not, at this point required in the clan; in any case, in his youth he would not have really thought about on leaving an old clan part behind to fight for oneself. â€Å"He recalled how he had deserted his own dad on an upper reach of the Klondike one winter, the winter before the teacher accompanied his discussion books and his crate of meds (London 392)†. Left in the solidified climate where the day off entire land is secured by an unending cover of day off, did likewise to his dad decades prior, discarding him like a bit of waste. In his last minutes, Koskoosh honors of when he was youthful with aâ friend, Zing-ha, and saw a moose tumble down and battle his way back to standing ground where the moose prevailing with regards to stepping one of the wolves to death. The moose battled until it was depleted and overwhelmed by the pack of wolves. Koskoosh presumes that nature didn't grasp whether a man lived or passed on; the proceeding of the species was every one of that should have been meaningful in â€Å"the law of life†. All things have a specific undertaking to keep up throughout everyday life, and everything in the wake of f inishing this assignment must pass on. The moose which battled to the end is an image of hinting of what befalls every single living animal; that all men must pass on and this is the thing that life should be. While recapping those recollections of when he was more youthful, he feels the chilly, wet nose of the wolf on his exposed, cold skin. His brain flashes back to the injured, grisly moose from quite a while in the past that was brought somewhere around a similar animal. This time, progressively awful recollections are being raised in his psyche. The blood, the enormous yellow eyes and the thorned teeth of the pack, and the manner in which they encased gradually on the moose, gradually backing off on their prey until the open door came to assault. His impulse for endurance was to move a flaring branch at the wolf to make him step back. The wolf withdraws, however shouts to his pack, and out of nowhere there are numerous wolves assembled around Koskoosh in a pack. Koskoosh recalls the moose, recollects that demise will come whether he battles against it or not. As substance with death as he was by all accounts, he is presently battling for his life, knowing he’s going to kick the bucket. Koskoosh at last acknowledges what he is doing and that he most likely truly doesn’t have a potential for success. â€Å"What did it make a difference after all?† â€Å"Was it not the law of life?† â€Å"Why should I stick to life (London, 394)?† He at that point drops the stick into the day off rests his worn out head on his knees and trusts that passing will take him. Taking everything into account, every single person in the long run face interminable rest paying little mind to our societies; it is the permanent of death. It is difficult to c

Friday, August 21, 2020

The Cherokee Victory :: essays research papers

The Cherokee Victory      The Cherokee Indians, the most agreeable and obliging to the political foundations of the US, endured the most exceedingly terrible destiny of every Native American when willfully or coercively moved west. In 1827 the Cherokees endeavored to guarantee themselves as a free country inside the territory of Georgia. At the point when the lawmaking body of the state expanded locale over this ‘nation,’ the Cherokees looked for lawful activities, not expose to Georgia laws and appealed to the United States Supreme Court. The case got known as Cherokee Nation versus Georgia in 1831. Preeminent Court Justice John Marshall denied their case as a republic inside Georgia, he at that point esteemed the Cherokee as a ‘domestic subordinate nation’. After one year through the instance of Worcester versus Georgia, the Cherokee’s were conceded government insurance from the attack by the territory of Georgia. Through the Indian Removal act in 1830 Preside nt Andrew Jackson appropriated arranging and subsidizing for the evacuation of Native Americans, Marshall’s decisions postponed this for the Cherokee Nation, and enraged President Jackson. Marshall’s choice had little impact on Jackson and disregarding this activity the president was restless to see him authorize it. The national government continued to discover a path around this choice and had three minor Cherokee chief’s sign the â€Å"Treaty of New Echota† in 1835 giving the Cherokee terrains to the administration for 5.6 million dollars and free section west. Congress got the settlement approved by just one vote. Individuals from their clans killed every one of the three boss who partook in the marking of the settlement. After this occasion there was very little the Cherokee’s could do and were coercively moved west on what they called and are referred to today as the ‘Trail of Tears,’ which turned into an established emergency in our history. In this occurrence the trouble between the parts of the legislature was the ruin for the Cherokee country. The manner in which the Cherokee’s were constrained west caused misfortunes of up to 20% of the country. This figure is just a theory and scholar’s think it was increasingly 33% of the country was lo st. The ‘Trail of Tears’ was likewise an assurance issue in the United States, later affecting our history the manner in which other Native American races all in all are treated later on. On the off chance that Chief Justice John Marshall had asserted that in either instance of â€Å"Cherokee Nation versus Georgia† or â€Å"Worcester versus

Thursday, July 9, 2020

The Secret Life of Bees Summary - Free Essay Example

In 1964, Lily Owens Is a fourteen year old girl living with her abusive father,T. Ray and haunting memories of her mothers death. The fourteen year old lives on a peach farm with her father and her caregiver Rosaleen Daise, a black woman who has been working for the Owens for ten years. Rosaleen is a mother figure to lily and helps her through life. Lily has a vague memory of her mothers death where her father and mother were fighting and a gun was dropped on the floor and she was the one who accidentally shot and killed her mother. Even with this haunting memory, Lily still wants to learn more about her mother even though her father hasnt revealed much about the woman he once loved. One day Rosaleen saw President Johnson sign the civil rights act and decides to register to vote no matter how risky that is down south. One day Lily and Rosaleen walk into town and a group of white men harass Rosaleen. Rosaleen is not having any of this harassment and gets angry at them, then the men beat her up and the cops come and arrest Rosaleen and bring Lily with her. Lily is brought back home by T.Ray and they begin to get into an argument where Lily decides to stand up to T.Ray, but because of his need to hurt Lily, T.Ray claims that the night her mother was killed, she was trying to leave Lily. Lily refuses to believe this to be true and decides to leave her father and free Rosaleen. When Lily goes to free Rosaleen, she sees that Rosaleen has been beaten by the men who had harassed her earlier while in the jail cell. After she frees her, Lily decides to go to Tiburon, South Carolina. Lily chose this place as a while back she had found a bag of her mothers old things and in that bag was a photo of what looked like a black virgin mary and on the back was written Tiburon, South Carolina. Lily hopes to go here and learn more about her mother. When she gets there, she goes into a grocery store where she sees the photo of the black virgin mary on jars of honey. Lily then asks the store clerk about who sells the honey, its the Boatrights, a local family with three sisters who are beekeepers. Lily finds their house right outside of town and is invited to stay. Lily gives a fake story about her past life in hopes of figuring out more about her mother. The three boatright sisters, May, June, August own an impressive 28-acre lot full of bee hives for them to keep. August is the most welcoming of the sisters, even though she does not believe Lilys story of her past life. June is suspicious and distant towards Lily and May is very emotional and often times has trouble with pain. This correlates with Mays twin sister committing suicide. As time goes on, Lily helps August with the beekeeping, along with a black teenager named Zach, who Lily develops a crush on. Rosaleen helps inside with May and does some house work. One day a group call the Daughters of Mary come into the house to meet with the sisters. In the living room of the Boatright house, there is a statue of the Black Virgin Mary which the Daughters sit by as they worship her. Lily wants to join in with the Daughters, but quickly realize that they only see her as white and not one of them. August continually tries to get Lily to tell her the truth about her past life, but Lily is afraid that if she does they will throw her out and wont let her return. As Zach and Lily become closer, they talk about what they want to do in the future. Lily wants to be a writer and Zach wants to become a lawyer. They both walk into town together one day and go to the lawyers office who has been mentoring Zach. When Lily is left alone, she impulsively calls her father and tries to tell him off, but he threatens to find her and beat her. Later, Lily notices May doing something that her mother used to do when she was young and then realizes that May knew her mother. Before Lily could confront August about this, Zach wants to take her into town to get new car parts when some black teenagers throw a bottle at a white man. Zach is arrested with them and Lily heads back to the Boatrights for help. They decide to keep this from May as they dont believe she could handle it. However, with Zachs one phone call, he calls the Boatrights and May answers and is told the horrible news. May is unable to handle everything that has happened and drowns herself in the river. Zach is released from jail and the whole house mourns the loss of May. After they all mourning, Lily finally talks to August about her mother and surprisingly finds out that August knew who Lily was. August explained the relationship between her mother and father an that her mother planned to divorce T.Ray and left without Lily, but then went back to get her so she could live with her and the sisters T.Ray is able to track down Lily from the phone call from the lawyers office. They have a big argument and Lily is abused verbally and physically. Lily was able to make him stop and realize that she is not her mother. T.Ray has consistently taken his anger out on Lily for what her mother did. August and Lily are able to convince T.Ray to let Lily live there permanently. At the end of the novel, Lily is now going to highschool and living a much healthier life. The Drawing: The drawing is of the Black Virgin Mary, a symbol that come up often in the novel. The Black Virgin Mary is very important to August and her sisters. Aust explains to Lily that it is important to fit religious figures into the intended audience, in this case a black virgin Mary for a black community. It is a symbol of power for the sisters and it is what lead Lily to this house where she now will live out the rest of her life.

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

The Oedipus Complex - Sigmund Freud vs. Jacques Lacan Essay

The Oedipus Complex - Sigmund Freud vs. Jacques Lacan The story of Sophocles Oedipus Tyrannus has been interpreted by innumerable writers, philosophers, and critics in countless ways; the methods of interpreting Oedipus vary from mad rages and blind accusations to ignorantly perverse acts ranging from basic sexual desire to pre-destined fate ordained by the gods. Perhaps the most famous psychoanalyst in history Sigmund Freud theorized that Oedipus story was applicable to all. French psychoanalyst Jacques Lacan translated Freud into French and, though Lacan claimed to agree completely with Freuds ideas, he substantially changed Freuds theories. As Jurgen Braungardt says, Lacan performs a renovation: he replaces the foundation†¦show more content†¦Thus, the desire for the mother is repressed and becomes subconscious. It is at this point that the development of what Freud identified as the super-ego, synonymous with the conscience, occurs. According to Freud, the super-ego is the unconscious component of the mind that stores all o f societys expectations, moral values, etc., suppressing the base desires of the id (the unconscious place in the mind that houses all our base, instinctive desires) and ego (the part of the mind where all conscious thought occurs). Because the ego and super-ego are unconscious, they are more powerful than if they were conscious; we have no realization of what is happening in them, and therefore cannot control or even recognize, what happens in those corners of the mind. This creates a conflict between the ego, id, and super-ego. Davis explains it like this: [L]ife for the ego is miserable: caught always between the conflicting and totally irreconcilable demands of, on the one hand, the id, and, on the other, the super-ego: what the ego obscurely feels it wants, its id-derived desires, it cant have, nor can it even admit that it wants them; what it feels it must do, the fierce imperatives of the superego, it cant, nor can it even admit these imperatives into awareness. (Davis) There are two main discrepancies within Freuds theory: First, everything is about sex. Many have trouble accepting that all human desires areShow MoreRelatedCleanth Brookss Essay Irony as a Principle of Structure9125 Words   |  37 PagesMarx’s own. The problem with Marx is precisely to take his method and his system as we find them and to demonstrate that they form a coherent unity that must be preserved. The opposite is true of Hegel. The task he imposes is to separate out from the complex web of ideas with its sometimes glaring contradictions all the seminal elements of his thought and rescue them as a vital intellectual force for the present. He is a more profitable and potent thinker than many people imagine. And as I see it, the

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Effects Of Fast Food On The Environment - 3493 Words

The well being of the environment concerns every individual who calls Earth home. The preponderance of people are well aware of the planet’s environmental crisis, but becoming independent from fossil fuels and minimizing their emissions is the issue most commonly discussed. However, the way the world eats, specifically Americans, is too often omitted from the environmental picture. In 2010, Americans spent $170 billion on fast food; more than they spent on higher education, personal computers, cars, or books. While overeating this type of food comes with negative personal health effects, the long term, big-picture problem with fast food is its negative effect on the environment, which lies in the way food is produced today. In recent years, farms have become industrialized, slowly but surely making the transition from farm to factory. This issue, in which plant and animal farms are both culprits, is the root of the negative effects of food on the environment and why it has r ecently become such a pressing matter. While industrial farming is the origin of the problem, in order to stop monocultural, nonorganic farms from flourishing, consumers must take the initiative to stop buying products coming from these farms so the world’s food market will evolve to fit its environmental needs. Food is the basis of many traditions around the world and most cultures and individuals would be reluctant to change the food that shapes their traditions or the food they simply enjoy eating.Show MoreRelatedEssay about Fast Food is Destroying America1477 Words   |  6 Pagesprovide food that customers love, day after day after day. People just want more of it† (Ray Kroc, Founder of McDonald’s). Coronary Artery Disease is a type of heart disease and the most common cause of heart attacks. 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Not only does fast food cause obesity but you are also at risk of other illnesses such as, heart disease, diabetes, and blood pressure. The leading cause is due to all the fast food that we have available at all times. Everywhere you look you see billboards, commercials, and restaurants. Fast food is also very addictive and is what can cause a person to become obese. And it also has

Health Economy and Finance Metropolitan Community

Question: Discuss about the Health Economy and Finance for Metropolitan Community. Answer: Financial Analysis The current scenario Current Situation Number of Cases 500 Total Direct Cost 3500000 Total Marginal Cost 2250000 Total Cost 5750000 Average Direct Costs 7000 Marginal Cost per Case 4500 Average Reimbursement per Case 10000 Average Profit/ Loss -1500 Total Profit/ Loss -750,000 New Scenario Average Logic Marginal Logic Hip replacement 50 50 Reimbursement price per Hip replacement $10,000 $10,000 Marginal reimbursement price per Hip replacement $500,000 $500,000 Cost per Hip replacement $11,500 $4,500 Direct Cost for a Hip replacement $575,000 $225,000 Profit/ Loss for additional 50 hips $(75,000) $275,000 Illustration for the Financial Analysis From the financial analysis, Metropolitan Community Hospital has been making losses from its Hip replacement operations. This can be observed by comparing both the average total costs per hip case and the average reimbursement price per case. The average cost per case is $ 11,500 while the average reimbursement price per case is $ 10,000. The Hospital incurs $ 1,500 more to conduct a single hip replacement as compared to the price earned from the reimbursement. Currently, the hospital incurs a total cost of $ 5,750,000 to conduct 500 hip replacements while the total reimbursement cost for the 500 cases is $ 5,000,000 (William Ward, 2015). The Company incurs a loss of $ 750,000 per annum after performing the 500 hip replacements. According to financial experts, an organization should engage in an investment that is likely to improve its financial positions. Which is not the case under the current scenario facing the Metropolitan Community Hospital (Baker, 2013). Although we have devoted ourselves to provide quality services to the community, the current situation is not favouring our operations (Cleverley Cameron, 2006). There is a need for focusing on either cost reduction strategy or seek an increased reimbursement price from, medical stakeholder. Therefore, the proposed should only be accepted if it is likely to improve the financial position of the hospital (Ward, 2015). Analysis of the new scenario An analysis of the new scenario has revealed the following; If the proposed scenario is accepted, the hospital will incur an additional cost amounting to $ 225,000 while the reimbursement prices to be received would by $500, 000. Metropolitan Community Hospital would make a profit from its new Hip replacement operations. This can be observed by comparing both the average total costs per hip case and the average reimbursement price per case (Gapenski, 2011). The marginal cost per case is $ 4,500 while the average reimbursement price per case is $ 10,000. The new deal was proposed from an improvement process that has been identified to reduce the length of stay. The Metropolitan would perform an additional 50 hip replacements per annum if the deal is accepted (Gapenski, 2006). However, it should be noted that the deal does not propose any financial benefits the hospital would gain apart from the reduced cost (Baker, 2013). The deal does not indicate any form of discount that the hospital would obtain by performing additional 50 hip replacements. Based on the information provided, the new deal has an improved benefits that the hospital is likely to enjoy. By accepting the proposed deal, the Metropolitan Community Organization would gain a profit of $ 5,500 per case of hip replacement which translates into a total profit of $275,000 per annum. Even though the hospital have been incurring losses for conducting 500 hip replacements per annum, the year deal would come with a profit (Cleverley Cameron, 2006). Conversely, the hospital would fulfil its core objective of improving the lives of the Metropolitan residents by performing additional 50 cases of hip replacements. The decision on whether to accept or reject the proposed deal would be based on the goal of the facility (William Ward, 2015), (Ward, 2015). The new proposal should be accepted because the hospital focuses on performing as many hip replacements as possible per year to improve the lives of its patients. Likewise, if the hospital is a profit making organization focussed on making additional money from its operations, the proposed deal should be accepted because it would lead to a profit for the organization (Baker, 2013). Even Non-Profit making organization focuses on controlling or keeping their cost of operation as low as possible, the proposed deal would lead to reduced expenditure and therefore should be accepted (Nowicki, 2011). Conclusion I urge the management of the Metropolitan Community Hospital to accept the proposed deal based on the facts presented in the presentation. References William, J., Ward, J. (2015). Health care Budgeting and Finance Management. New York: Praeger. Baker, J. J. (2013). Health Care Finance. Chicago: Jones Bartlett Publishers. Cleverley, W. O., Cameron, A. E. (2006). Essentials of Health Care Finance. Chicago: Jones Bartlett Learning. Gapenski, L. C. (2006). Understanding Healthcare Financial Management. London,UK: Health Administration Press. Gapenski, L. C. (2011). Healthcare Finance: An Introduction to Accounting and Financial Management. London, UK: Health Administration Press. Nowicki, M. (2011). Introduction to the Financial Management of Healthcare Organizations. London, UK: Health Administration Press. Ward, W. J. (2015). Health Care Budgeting and Financial Management for Non-Financial Managers. New York: Praeger .

Wednesday, April 22, 2020

Social Cultural Impacts of Tourism

Introduction The social cultural impact of tourism refers to the positive and negative effect or impact of tourism on the cultural heritage, traditions, customs, and social life style of host communities. This paper will look at the positive and negative socio-cultural impacts of tourism on host communities and tourists, as well as the different factors that influence these impacts.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Social Cultural Impacts of Tourism specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More It is, however, important to keep in mind that all society’s problems can not be blamed on tourism, nor can all positive social developments be attributed to tourism (Liu 2003, p. 25). There are other factors that contribute to society’s problems and development, such as globalization and the influence of the mass media. Positive Social Cultural Impacts of Tourism The positive socio-cultural impacts of tourism include empl oyment, improvement of infrastructure, transfer of knowledge into a country, and improvement to the economy. These are discussed in the following subsections. Employment In most countries, the tourism sector provides employment opportunities to a huge percentage of the population. To facilitate tourism operations, people get employed to work in the hotel industry, the transport sector, and national parks as tour guides (Green 2005, p. 13). The economic benefits that are derived from tourism in terms of employment of a nation’s population ultimately impact people’s standard of living. Provision of Shared Infrastructure The development of tourist infrastructure, such as airports and leisure facilities, can also benefit local communities, as long as the infrastructure is not developed for the exclusive use of tourists (Allen et al. 1993). This tourist infrastructure affects the social and cultural lives of local communities because their way of living would have been diff erent had the infrastructure not been established and shared. For example, Maun, which is a rural area in Botswana, is a famous fast stop destination for tourists visiting the Okavango Delta and Moremi Game Reserve. Existing leisure facilities such as modern international airport, restaurants and shopping malls were originally intended for tourists, but are also shared by the local community (Long et al. 1990). Therefore, the social lives and contemporary culture of local residents are remarkably different from those in other major villages in Botswana. Transfer of Knowledge into a Country Tourism promotes the transfer of knowledge to the host country. When experienced people from a developed country visit a developing country, opportunities are created for knowledge to be transferred from one community to another. Ultimately, developing countries are able to benefit.Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Economic Improvement Most tourist destinations across the world are able to improve their economies as a result of tourism activities. Among others, tourism enables countries to earn foreign currency which enables them to effectively trade with foreign states. In Kenya, the tourism sector employs a large number of people who work in world class hotels and the transport sector, among others. Tourism also contributes greatly to national income. Negative Social Cultural Impacts of Tourism Some of the negative socio-cultural impacts of tourism on the host community include decline in morality, interruption of family and gender relationships, interference with value systems and religions, reduction of culture to a commodity, and staged authenticity. These are discussed as follows. Decline in Morality in Society Exposure to the different values of tourists and, in some cases, irresponsible tourist behavior, may give rise to various moral and societal problems, such as crime, prostitution, gambling, unhealthy eating and drinking, and drug abuse. Interruption of Family and Gender Relationships In many traditional societies, the father, who is the head of the family, has the responsibility to provide for his family. By providing employment, wages, and a disposable income to other members of the traditional family unit, which can be seen as a positive development, tourism can interrupt traditional family and gender relationships, and create discord in the family. The end result may be communities that do not function properly because the traditional division of work has been overruled and undermined (McGehee Andereck 2004). An example of this disruption can be observed in the families of the employees of safari companies that operate in the Okavango Delta and are separated from their families for months on end. However, it must be noted that interruption of family and gender relationships, as is the case with the other impacts, can not be at tributed to tourism alone, as there are other industries, such as the mining industry, that also tend to have the same effect. Interference with Value Systems and Religion Tourism may introduce different and sometimes opposing values to established value systems and religion. On the one hand, host communities in developing countries sometimes perceive tourists from developed countries as too liberal and lacking in morals, and find them insensitive to local norms and taboos. On the other hand, local populations often reject old ways and adopt the ways of visitors too quickly. This most often happens if the practices are from rich, developed countries and the local population is in a less wealthy developing country (Murphy 1981, p. 56). While adopting foreign practices may not always be bad, it may cause culture shock, lack of social cohesion, and loss of cultural identity if it happens too quickly. No human culture should ever be sacrificed at the expense of another.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Social Cultural Impacts of Tourism specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Reducing Culture to a Commodity This involves reducing culture to another product with a price tag. In the context of the cultural impact of tourism, this wears the worth, dignity, value, and sanctity of particular cultures. Cultural practices, although often preserved by tourist interest, may lose their real value and meaning. An example includes the practice of performing sacred dances and rituals for the tourists for money. Similarly, watching the divination by a traditional healer, sangoma, or inyanga, can reduce it from being a spiritual exercise to a financial transaction or theatrical performance. Staged Authenticity This is experienced when the host community stages or enacts certain authentic elements of its culture for the benefits of tourists, even though those cultural elements may no longer be part of their normal mo dern daily living. This means that authentic elements of culture become rehearsed and non-authentic as they are performed out of context. Examples of authentic cultural elements that may be staged out of context for tourists include traditional dances, certain rituals or practices, the wearing of traditional dresses purely for the benefit of tourists, and the re-enactment of long gone or ancient lifestyles. In all the above, while these elements may be an authentic representation of how the hosts used to live, they may not be a true reflection of how they live today, and hence the representation is reduced to a mere staging of something. As an example, think of an authentic traditional dance performance by singers in animal skins at the Market Theatre in Johannesburg. The problem with this performance is that it may not be a true reflection of the contemporary and living culture of the place, and might even reinforce tourist’s perception that, in this particular case, African s are still primitive.Advertising Looking for essay on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Factors that Influence the Social Cultural Impact of Tourism In general, the social cultural impact of tourism is not the same across the world, and a number of factors affect the impact of tourism on any community. Ordinarily, most tourist-host interactions occur at the tourist destination region, when tourists purchase goods and services from local people, when tourists and local residents use the same facilities such as beaches, shops, restaurants, and other amenities and infrastructure, or when they purposefully meet to exchange ideas and information. The type of interaction between tourists and hosts influence the relationship and the attitudes they have towards each other, and this in turn influences the social cultural impact of tourism (Wang Pfister 2008). The tourist-host relationship and thus the social cultural impact of tourism is affected by the differences between tourists and hosts, the type of contact between tourists and hosts, the importance of tourism in a commun ity, and community tolerance threshold which refers to how willing a community is to bear the inflow of tourists and their influences. These are discussed as follows. Differences between Tourists and Hosts The differences between tourists and hosts that can affect the social cultural impact of tourism are their basic value and logic systems, religious beliefs, traditions, customs, lifestyles, behavioral patterns, dress codes, sense of time budgeting, and attitudes towards strangers. Basic Value and Logic Systems The values and the logic systems of a host community and tourists will determine what they value and how they value it. If the hosts and tourists have different values and logic systems, it could cause attraction or resentment whenever there is an interaction. Religion, Traditions, and Customs When tourists and hosts belonging to different religions come into contact with one another, there are likely to be shocks and new discoveries. For example, the public display of affec tion between males and female Christian tourists may be shocking to many Muslims in the Middle East. Contact between tourists and hosts whose traditions differ might cause greater impact. For example, the scantily dressed tourist may, in the long run, impact on the dress code of many rural communities in Africa. The reaction might be to copy them or loathe them for not adhering to local norms and social codes. Variations in traditional practices can be found even among people of the same race and language. The similarity of customs between the guest and the hosts lessen the possibility of misunderstanding each other. For example, tourists from Cape Town visiting Durban will find many customary similarities to their hosts and may not have any impact on their host community. Differences in customs, however, do not always mean that there will be a negative social cultural impact. Lifestyle Lifestyle differences can be caused by income differences. The rich tend to lead similar lifestyl es even though their cultures may not be identical, as the way they spend their money on property, travel, and entertainment, for example, is usually similar. Such lifestyle differences might have an impact if the hosts copy, envy, or morally judge the tourists, or vice versa (Pizam 1978, p. 98). Dress Code When the dress code of tourists is different from that of hosts, the hosts tend to be either attracted to or offended by the dress of the visitors. In most cases, the hosts tend to envy and copy the dress style of tourists, which may not always be acceptable. Sense of Time Budgeting People from developed countries generally value time and think that it is polite to be on time for appointments. On the other hand, people from developing countries generally have a more relaxed attitude towards time, and are not as strict in keeping appointments. Such differences can be a source of misunderstanding or even conflict between tourists and the host community. Attitude towards Strangers S ome cultures and societies view strangers with suspicion while other cultures are more open towards outsiders. The more open the host communities are towards strangers, the greater the social cultural impact of tourism is likely to be on them. Type of Contact between Tourists and Hosts The type of activities tourists engage in, such as passive or active activities, can determine the type of contact and level of interaction with a community. The more active the activity, the greater the interaction with the host community, and the more likely tourism is to have an impact on them (Lankford 1994, p. 35). For example, formal contact, as in the case where tourists receive services from their hosts, makes it necessary for tourists and the local community to interact with each other and is a platform where cultures, norms, and values are exchanged. Thus, it is an opportunity for both parties to copy the behavior and mannerisms of the other. In a similar way, informal contact that takes pla ce where tourists and hosts share the same facilities such as stadiums, streets, or beaches may have either a good or bad influence on tourists or hosts or both. The Importance of Tourism in the Community The way tourism is perceived by the local people in communities, especially their perceptions about its importance to their livelihood, will impact on tourist-host relationship. In cases where there is an excitement about tourists and the benefits that their presence will bring, the tourist-host relationship is usually good due to mutual admiration between tourists and their hosts (Hafeznia et al. 2007). In contrast, when the novelty of meeting new cultures wears off and tourists begin to irritate the locals, probably due to their large numbers, their competing for the limited resources with locals, or the real or perceived ills that tourists bring, tourism might be seen as having less importance and a more antagonistic relationship will begin to develop (Huang Stewart 1996). Comm unity Tolerance Threshold As stated earlier community tolerance threshold refers to how willing a community is to bear the inflow of tourists and their influences. Where the members of a community are less irritable and able to accept tourists regardless of their mannerisms, then tourism will have an impact on them (Aref Redzuan 2010). On the other hand, when members of the host community are irritable, it becomes very difficult for tourists to penetrate their society and the tourism will have little or no impact at all on the local community. Conclusion As explained in this paper, the social cultural impact of tourism is not the same across the world. Various factors that differ from location to location influence not only the type of impact, but also whether those impacts will be negative or positive. The type of interaction between tourists and hosts influences their relationship and the attitudes they have towards one another, and this in turn influences the social cultural imp act of tourism. Typically, the tourist-host relationship and thus the social cultural impact of tourism are affected by differences between tourists and the host communities. Other factors are the type of contacts created and how tourism is regarded by the local community. The location of tourism, such as a rural or urban location or in a developed or developing country, determines whether the social cultural impact on the location will be positive or negative. To a great extent, the number of tourists visiting a location affects the level of impact on the host community. For example, a large number of tourists will have a greater influence on the host community, because there are many chances of a local person meeting a tourist. The origin of tourists also affects the social cultural impact of tourism because there might be notable differences between them and the hosts due to their origin, which might intensify the impact. The stage of tourism development in a destination affects the host community’s knowledge of tourism and attitude towards tourists, and its reaction to tourism. Reactions of host communities in the development stage can include hostility, lack of charity, and imitation. These in turn affect the nature of social cultural impacts that result from tourism. To some degree, the length of the tourist season influences the intensity of the social cultural impact. 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Wang, Y Pfister, E 2008, ‘Residents’ Attitudes toward Tourism and Perceived Personal Benefits in a Rural Community’, Journal of Travel Research, 47: 84 – 93. This essay on Social Cultural Impacts of Tourism was written and submitted by user Ada O. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.